Preventive measures and safe alternatives to poison baits that resolve wildlife-human conflict

Several preventive measures exist that can reduce damages inflicted on livestock and game species by other animals, helping resolve potential human-wildlife conflicts, especially with predators, which is the most common motive behind the intentional placement of poison baits across the Balkans. These preventive measures act as safe alternatives to poison baits as they do not harm nature, wildlife and public health.

Electric fences

The establishment of electric fences enclosing livestock herds or agricultural fields can prevent the entry of animals that may inflict damages. This preventive measure is considered effective and a flexible, portable, affordable and easy solution.


Livestock breeders often improvise by installing different lights to scare away predators at night. Foxlights is a patented device specifically designed to deter predators during the night by shining coloured lights randomly at various rhythms and angles to give the impression of human presence.

Fladry systems

A fladry system consists of red flags hanging from ropes surrounding herds or pens to deter wolves from entering selected areas. Although this measure is portable and relatively easy to install, it is a short-term solution best applied for temporary pens or during the transfer of herds since wolves get used to fladry systems at around two months

Livestock guard dogs

The most common and obvious preventative measure is the use of livestock guard dogs, one of the most natural and humane methods that has been used for centuries to prevent bear and wolf attacks. In fact, widespread poison baits in the countryside threaten livestock guard dogs' lives, with some indigenous dog breeds suffering in certain Balkan countries.

The BalkanDetox LIFE project will introduce and promote these preventive measures to key stakeholders, such as farmers, hunters, game managers, livestock breeders, who are relevant to the practice of illegal wildlife poisoning. Project teams will tailor these awareness programmes to address the main drivers behind poison use in each project country.



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